13 Mart 2012 Salı

NEO_IMPRESSIONISM

                         
                                    The Neo-Impressionist does not dot,he divides.
                                                                                                            (Paul SIGNAC)
        At the suggestion of Camille Pissarro ,one of the founders of the Impressionist group ,work by his son,Lucien ,and two other young French painters,Paul Signac and George Seurat were included in the last Impressionist exhibition held in 1886. The Pissarros had already met Seurat and Signac the year before ,and all four were working inthe style that would soon be lbelled Neo-Impressionism by the critic Félix Fénéon.
        The new pictures were hung separetly from the main exhibition ,inviting critics to compare the old and new styles of Impressionism.The strategy was a success and critical reaction was favourable.Fénéon's review,highlighting both the origin of the Impressionist style and the reaction to Impressionist techniques was positive.By the early 1880s,many of the Impressionist felt that Impressionism had gone too far in dematerializing  the object and had become too ephemeral.
(Paul Sıgnac)

      Drawing on the premise that colour is mixed in the eye , not on the palette ,they perfected a technique for applying dots of colour on the canvas so that they blended when viewed at an appropriate distance.Fénéon invented the term 'pointillism'to describe this technique ,thought Seurat and Signac named it divisionism.Today divisionism is used to refer to the theory and pointillism to the technique.
   As La Grand Jatte illustrates ,the majority of Neo-Impressionist paintings are evenly composed,and the divisionist technique produces extraordinary optical effects.Since the eye is constantly moving,the dots never completely meld together ,but produce a shimmering ,hazy effect, like that experienced in bright sunlight.The after-effect is such that the image seems to float in time and space.This illusion is often heightened by another Seurat's innovations:a pointillist border painted on the canvas itself ,and sometimes extended to include the frame.

Neo-Impressionist imagery was also influenced by progressive aesthetic theories of the day ,such as those of Charles Henry and others,which dealt with physiological  responses to lines and colours.According to their theories ,horizontal lines included calm;upward-sloping lines ,sadness.
       In 1899,Neo-Impressionism was given a new lease of life in France with the publication of Signac From Eugéne Delacroix to Neoimpressionism.
       A wide range of artists,including Vincent van Gogh ,Paul Gauguin and Henri Matisse ,experimented with Neo-İmpressionist techniques during their carees.
                                                                                         


                                                                                          ART IN MODERN ERA
                     
 

6 Mart 2012 Salı

IMPRESSIONISM

                                      
   Impressionism was born in April 1874 when a group of young artist in Paris ,frustrated with the continual axclusion of their works from the official Salons , joined together to hold their own exhibition in the studio of the photographer Félix Nadar.
    The 1874 exhibition was greeted with curiosity and confision by the public, and derision from the popular press , and the title of Monet's Impression ,Sunrise provided the scornful ciritic, Louis Leroy with the name for the group ,'Impressionists'.Years later Monet recounted the story behind the naming of the picture ,and the fuss that ensued from it:
      They wanted to know its title for the catalogue ;because it couldn't really pass for a view of Le Havre .I replied ,'Use Impressionism'from it and that's when the fun began.
      Since the mid-nineteenth century Paris had become the first truly modern metropolis,both physical and socially , and many Impressionist works captured this new Parisian cityscape.The role of art in a changed society was the subject of artistic,literary and social debates  of the day,and the Impressionists were self consiously modern in encompassing new technologies,theories,practices and variety in subject matter.Their interest in capturing the visual impression of a scene ,to paint what the eye saw rather than what the artists knew ,was as revolutionary as their practice of working outdoors to observe the play of l,ght and colours.Their avoidance of historical or allegorical subjects,and their insistence on the fleeting moments of modern life marked   a definitive break with accepted subject manner and practical.

    Througout the 1860's, then Impressionists absorbed these lessons and developed their styles,ften painting together or meeting to discuss their work and share their ideas.Between 1874 and 1886 the eight now famous independent shows of their work took place ,at once drawing the publics attention.
   
It is not and exaggeration to say that throughout the 1870s most Impressionist works were concerned with the affects of light on landscapes. But a change occurred in the early 1880s,usually referred to as the 'İmpressionist crisis'.Many of the artists began to feel that in trying to capture light and the ephemeral quality of atmosphere theyt had eroded yhe figure too far, and from this moment on,the movement become more diverse.the group began to portray a broader range of subject matter.The crisis ,which also affected the younger generation exhiibiting alongside the Impressionists , would later result in radical departures from the Impressionists' original ideas.
    By the late 1880s and 1890s Impressionism was accepted as a valid artistic style ,and spread throughout Europe and the USA.
    The impact of Impressionism cannot be overestimated.Their actions and experiments symbolized the rejection of artistic traditions and the value judgements of criticism ,and future avant-grade movements would follow their axample and take a stand for artistic freedom and innovation.By painting 'vision'-not what one sees ,but what seeing is-they heralded the begining of Modernism ,initating a process that would revolutionize the conception and percedption of the artistic object.Impressionism represents the begining of the twentieth century's exploration of the expressive properties of colour ,light,line and form,a particularly strong theme in modern art.Perhaps most important of all,Impressionism can be seen as the start of the strungle to free painting and sculpture from its solely descriptive duty in order to create a new language and role akin to other art forms such as music and poetry.


                                                                                                                   ART IN MODERN ERA